國際法的占領法律 Civil Law in Occupied Territory

國際法的占領法律
Civil Law in Occupied Territory

國際法理的佔領法律不被佔領當局重視,被占領者如果不知如何利用法律反抗,那將是「人民會生不如死、生活在政治煉獄」,台灣民政府將有關軍事占領當局在被占領領土施行法律規定,提醒本土台灣人回顧被佔領區「民政當局概念(Concept of Civil Administration)」,如下:

Civil administration support is assistance to stabilize a foreign government. There are three mission activities that support civil administration: civil assistance, civil administration in friendly territory, and civil administration in occupied territory. It fulfills obligations arising from treaties, agreements, or international law.民政當局支援是幫助穩定外國政府。支援民政當局任務活動有三種:民事援助、在善意領土之民政當局、及在被佔領領土之民政當局。其履行由條約、協議或國際法所發生之義務。

美軍在其佔領地所成立之「軍事政府亦即軍政府(military government)」
其「民政當局(civil administration)」必須物色適當之被佔領方人士,依戰爭法設立「民事政府亦即民政府(civil government)」,以遂行治理權之移轉,並在萬國公法規範內施行治理。有關被佔領地民政當局之概念如下:

Concept of Civil Administration in Occupied Territory:

1. Situations occur when military necessity or legitimate directives require the Army to establish a temporary government in an occupied territory.當軍事需要或合法指令要求軍隊在被佔領領土設立一個暫時性政府之情況發生時。

2. The civil administration in occupied territory is imposed force. The administered territory is under effective U.S. military control.在被佔領領土之民政當局是強制勢力。被治理領土是在美軍有效控制下。

3. The U.S. military goal is to establish a government that supports U.S. objectives and to transfer control to a duly organized government as quickly as possible.美國軍方的目標是設立一個支援美國方針的政府,及儘快移轉予一個適當有組織的政府。

4. The U.S. military will identify, screen, and train reliable civilians to ease this transfer.美國軍方會檢定、篩選及訓練可靠之民間人士,以順利移轉。

5. Even with the use of local civilians, the occupying forces still retain the power to exercise supreme authority.即使採用當地民間人士,佔領軍仍保有行使高權之權力。

6. Granting authority to civilian government officials does not of itself terminate the Army's responsibility in the occupied territory.賦予平民政府官員權力,並不自行終止軍隊在被佔領領土之責任。

7. The goal of U.S. civil administration of an occupied territory is to create an effective civil government. This government should not pose a threat to future peace and stability. Support to civil administration of an occupied territory should emphasize that an orderly and efficient transition occurs from civil administration to civil government and the obligations of international law and treaties are met.美國在被佔領領土之民政當局其目標是設立一個有效力之民事政府。此政府不應對未來之和平及穩定有威脅。 對被佔領領土民政當局之支援,應著重在從民政當局至民事政府是有秩序,和有效率之過渡,以及國際法和條約義務之履行。

8. Occupied hostile territory is an area the United States has taken possession of (through force of arms) with the intent to keep it from enemy control.被佔領之敵方領土是美國為排除敵方控制, 經由武力而佔有之地區。

9. Possession does not require the presence of troops in all areas of the occupied territory. The occupying force must, however, be able to quickly deploy to any area within the territory to enforce its authority.軍隊並無需在所有被佔領地區存在以示占有。然而,佔領軍必須有能力在領土內之任何地區迅速佈署以強施權力。

以上敘述可以理解,美軍完全有能力在台灣島內之任何地區迅速佈署,台灣即使無美軍駐在,也是美國之法理佔領地。

10. The head of an established civil administration system is the civil administrator, often called the military governor. The administrator is a military commander or other designated person who exercises authority over the occupied territory.
所設立民政當局體制之領導人是民政長官,通常稱為軍事總督。行政官是軍隊指揮官或其他被任命在被佔領地行使權力者。

11. The occupying power may allow the existing government structure to continue under its control and supervision. It represents the easiest basis for developing a functioning government on short notice, since it is already in place.
佔領國可允許既有政府組織在其控制及監督下繼續運作。所意味的是其為倉促發展一個機能政府最容易之基礎,因其已到位。

12. The occupying power may elect to retain all public officials or, for political or security reasons, may replace all or selected personnel with other qualified people. Programs directed toward effecting political reform, strengthening government agencies and institutions, and developing self-government are carried out as necessary.佔領國可決定保留所有公務人員,或基於政治或安全理由,可將全部或所挑出之人員由其他有資格人士取代。必要時實行導向影響政治改革,強化政府機關和機構,以及發展自治之計劃。

13. In some cases, the occupying power may find it necessary to reorganize, replace, or abolish selected agencies or institutions of the existing government.在某些情況下佔領國可能會認為有必要重組、更換或撤廢,選既有政府之機關或機構。

14. Replacing the existing government and building a new structure is the most drastic "change of administration, COA". The occupying power should adopt this COA only if the old regime has completely collapsed or is so hostile or poses such a threat to peace and stability that its continued existence cannot be tolerated.撤換既有政府而建構新組織是最激烈之政權改變。佔領國應只有在如舊政權已徹底瓦解,或有敵意或對安全及穩定有威脅,以致不得容忍其繼續存在時,才採取這種政權改變。

日本政府1945年4月1日,將台灣編入為日本國土一部份後,就體制而言, 臺灣總督府即改由適當之地方制度,取代而不復有繼續存在之正當性。儘管如此,基於太平洋戰敗,原本在台灣領土上為既有政府之臺灣總督府於1945年10月25日是已徹底瓦解,美國當局理應督促中國佔領軍依戰爭法,遵循「最激烈之政權改變」模式,在台灣佔領地「為本土台灣人新設立一個民事政府(to newly set up a civil government for the people of Taiwan)」,然而,不幸的是:美國當局縱容本質為中國軍事政府之台灣治理當局,將佔領日本台灣」誤導成「解放中國台灣」,技術性迴避設立台灣民政府,模糊台灣地位。

15. The occupying power must obey the existing laws, but in many cases, it may have to change the existing laws. International law is quite specific about requirements. It must meet these requirements when changing civil law in an occupied territory.佔領國必須遵循現行法律,然而在許多情況下,可能需要改變現行法律。國際法對其條件是很明確,在被佔領領土改變民法時必須符合這些條件。

明確地說,依戰爭法所執行之軍事佔領,是不得違反「萬國公法」原則。佔領當局必須遵循原本在被佔領領土所施行法律。而其認為如有改變必要,必須符合國際法所規範之條件。

美西巴黎和約1898年12月10日簽訂後,美國陸軍少將 John R. Brooke於1898年12月28日,在維持現行西班牙政府司法體制下,設立「古巴美國軍政府(United States Military Government of Cuba)」。

Cuba's judicial powers and courts remained legally based on the codes of the Spanish government.

相對於美國在佔領古巴期間,是採現行西班牙法律,以治理古巴佔領地,中華民國在佔領台灣期間,並非採現行日本法律,而是採中華民國法律,治理台灣佔領地,其明顯逾越佔領國軍政府之權限。

台灣民政府 秘書長 林 志昇
2016/03/19

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